403 Forbidden Error – Causes and Fixes

You spend months, working day in and out coding your website and it is finally time to test it. You type the URL of the website in a browser and hit enter, only to be slapped back with a 403 Forbidden error. Can be very frustrating for a web designer.

403 Forbidden Error-Causes and Fixes

403 Forbidden error is an HTTP status code error, that is displayed on the browser on which you’re accessing the website. What the error is essentially telling you is, your request reached the web server, was authenticated and processed, but the server chose to do nothing with your request because you were

Five ways to optimize your Nginx server

Nginx is an open-source HTTP(web) server and reverse proxy, and an IMAP/POP3 proxy server (email server). It was developed to tackle the C10K problem that web servers in use at the time, which was largely Apache, were facing. C10K is simply a numeronym that stands for concurrently handling 10000 connections. Nginx was designed with the drawbacks of Apache in mind.

Five ways to optimize your Nginx server

Although Nginx is by default, fast and nimble, it can be fine-tuned to perform at its peak, by modifying the following parameters:

1. Worker Processes

Unlike Apache, Nginx does NOT create a new process for every connection that hits it. It instead has a predefined (set by an admin) number

High Memory Usage in SQL – How to avoid it?

When your system is short of memory, MySQL will be killed by the system itself since it can use a lot of memory. This also causes MySQL servers to face high server load. Usually when MySQL is killed, we get the message “mysqld invoked oom-killer”. In such cases it is always advisable to restart the entire server and not just MySQL. The flow on effects may vary from the OOM condition & thus restarting the entire server has to be done.

High Memory Usage in SQL - How to avoid it?

With MySQL being one of the most used database in applications of web, it is also easy to use &

4 best practices to follow to keep your customers happy

Keeping your customers happy is the key in this competitive technology savvy world that we live in. One negative review/comment/opinion on social media about the customer service can spread like forest fire and break your reputation.

Best practices to follow to keep your customers  happy

Mindsets & rules for thinking can dependably guide you to the correct decision, every time towards the customer.

Here are the 4 best practices to follow to keep your customers happy all the time.

1) Understanding that every interaction with a customer is an opportunity

Sometimes you realise that whatever you do, a customer is just going to walk out of the door.

Customer service

How to use layered security to safeguard your server?

Well most of us in today’s scenario talk about “defense in depth” or “layered security”. Though they are used interchangeably, they are very separate from each other.

Nowadays, building just one level of security to safeguard your server could have devastating consequences down the line. While attackers may easily penetrate the first level of defense, layered security uses security at different levels so that it becomes extremely tough to break the defense mechanism of the server. Any single defense may be flawed and we can identify the flaws only by allowing an attack which we do not want to. So this

E-mail Authentication


We all send Email on our day to day life, We send mails from our Email client (Outlook, Thunderbird ) or from a Web interface (From browser), the mails gets transferred to the recipient.

The question is, how secure is our message transfer. What is happening at the background. How the messages that we send are validated and secured from being modified. The emails are validated through the process Email Authentication.

How Email Works:

email server

Email Authentication:

Email authentication is a collection to validate the MTAs who participated in transferring message. It is used to validate the whether the email originated from a legitimated domain.


Here is a guide to install Apache with PHP-FPM(PHP-FastCGI Process Manager) and mod_fastcgi

PHP-FPM is an alternative implementation of PHP-FastCGI. In PHP-FPM the PHP process runs as a standalone without the need of web server. It listens for incoming requests on either a TCP or a Unix socket. The web server we use(apache in our case) send requests and connect to PHP processes using FastCGI protocol. As PHP-FPM has its own service and runs standalone it resolves the problem with mod_php like destroying PHP instances with every request. This provides us better performance in PHP-FPM.

We have made steps for CentOS

Find open ports on linux server using a script

Create a .sh file with below script and set execute permission for the scrip file.

#vi portscan.sh

#!/bin/bash #The port numbers

  • PORT1=21 #ftp
  • PORT2=22 #ssh
  • PORT3=25 #smtp
  • PORT4=53 #dns
  • PORT5=80 #http
  • PORT6=110 #POP3
  • PORT7=143 #IMAP
  • PORT8=443 #https
  • PORT9=1433 #MSSQL
  • PORT10=3306 #MYSQL
  • PORT11=3389 #Microsoft-RDP
  • PORT12=5432 #PostgreSQL

read -p "Enter the Server IP/HOSTNAME : " HOSTNAME #Enter the Host Name to check the Open Ports echo "" echo "Checking open/closed ports on the host $HOSTNAME", Please wait…. echo "" if ping -c2 $HOSTNAME |grep -i "time=" then echo $HOSTNAME is up else echo "$HOSTNAME is down or unable to ping" fi echo "" echo "Checking the port status of $HOSTNAME", Please wait…. echo "" if nmap -p$PORT1

Routing protocol commands list

CCNA Routing Protocol Commands

IP ROUTING #sh ip route // To view IP routing tables created on a Cisco router.

Static Routing Routers are manually configured for networks that are not directly connected, to be able to route to all networks via the next-hop interface.

Syntax: (config)#ip route (config)#no ip route //To remove a static route // Please note the ‘no’ which is the word used in routers to negate any command Default Routing Used on stub networks only to send packets with remote destination network not in the routing table to the next hop router.

Syntax: (config)#ip route


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